Glossary

Antagonist A substance that counteracts the effect of another substance.
API Active product ingredience
CA125 Cancer antigen 125, diagnostic tumour marker
Chemotherapy The treatment of cancer with cytostatics
CNS Central Nervous System
Cytostatics Drugs that are used to inhibit tumor growth 
Cytotoxic Toxic for cells
EMEA European Medicines Agency. The European regulatory drug agency
Excipient Carrier, inactive substance used as carrier of an active pharmaceutical ingredient
FDA Food and Drug Administration. The US regulatory drug agency 
GCP  Good Clinical Practice. International quality guidelines for clinical studies.
GLP Good Laboratory Practice. International quality guidelines for developing of pharmaceutical products.
GMP International quality guidelines for the production of food and pharmaceutical products 
Hyperglycemia  Abnormal high blood sugar concentration
IND Investigative New Drug application
Immunostimulating  Substances that directly or indirectly stimulate the body's own immune system
Infusion  The way of administering a drug in liquid form. Infusion often takes place intravenously, i.e. in a vein. 
Isomer  Alternative form (molecular structure) of a chemical 
Ionizing radiation  Electromagnetic radiation with short wave lengths and a high energy content (e.g. X-rays) 
Lymphoma  A form of cancer of the lymphoid tissue 
Malignant melanoma  A form of skin cancer in the skin's melanocytes, i.e. the cells that form the skin's protective pigment, melanin 
Melanin  The pigment that is formed by a special type of skin cell, melanocytes.
Micelle  A collection of spherical structures with the ability to form aggregates 
Mastocytoma  A form of skin cancer
Nanometer  One-billioneth of a meter. The size is equivalent with molecules and molecular structures 
Nanoparticle  A particle whose size is measured in nanometers, 10-9m. 
Neurotoxicity  The quality of exerting a destructive or negative effect upon nerve tissue 
NSCLC  Non-small cellular lung cancer
Oncology  The study of tumors 
Paclitaxel  The first taxane that was extracted from the yew tree. Today, one of the most common cytostatics. 
Pharmacokinetics  The study of the of the distribution and absorption over a period of time of a drug or another substance 
Phase I  During the clinical development of a drug, it is tested for the first time on humans in phase I. One studies the effect and safety on a limited group of healthy volunteers (25 - 100 people). 
Phase II   A further study on patients (50 - 300) who have the disease that the drug in question is intended to be used on. It is a study of effect and safety. 
Phase III  The final phase that consists of an expanded group of patients (300 - 3000) in order to verify the effect of the drug and catch side-effects that have been noticed earlier. 
Phase IV  After launching the finished product, a follow-up study is made, especially of rare side-effects 
Platinum  A precious metal. It is used as a method of treatment in oncology; either by itself or in combination with other substances. 
Premedication  Prophylatic treatment with certain drugs before and / or during the main treatment of the disease in question. This is often done since the main treatment otherwise entails entirely too drastic side-effects. 
Prophylatic  Preventive treatment with difference substances. As an example can be mentioned vitamins and anti-inflammatory substances before treatment with cytostatics. 
PVC  Polyvinylchloride. A form of plastic 
Randomized  Randomly selected. It is customary to randomize groups of patients in clinical studies. It is held that if those who have received the drug and those who have received a placebo have been randomly selected, this will enhance credibility and statistical accuracy. 
RECIST Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours
Resistance  Remaining unaffected. A tumor or an individual can be or develop resistance to a treatment. Regardless how much the dose of the drug is increased, no effect is obtained. 
Retinoid  A substance similar to vitamin A
Steroid  A group of substances that contribute to the growth and repair of body tissues and is used in health care. 
Taxanes  A group of chemicals that originally were extracted from the yew tree. The group belongs to the most commonly used substances against tumor diseases today. 
Toxic  Poisonous
WHO  World Health Organisation. The UN body for global health. 

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